The Gregorian calendar is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582.
The calendar was a refinement to the Julian calendar involving a 0.002% correction in the length of the year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the vernal equinox, which set the date for Easter celebrations. Transition to the Gregorian calendar would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe. Protestants and Eastern Orthodox countries continued to use the traditional Julian calendar and adopted the Gregorian reform after a time, for the sake of convenience in international trade. The last European country to adopt the reform was Greece, in 1923.
The earlier Julian calendar fell short of practical observation of equinoxes, which meant all of liturgical practices were now (in the times of Gregory) out of sync. For Indian readers, Liturgical Calendar is one which defines the dates of rituals and religious ceremonies.
The Gregorian reform contained two parts: a reform of the Julian calendar as used prior to Pope Gregory XIII’s time and a reform of the lunar cycle used by the Church, with the Julian calendar, to calculate the date of Easter. The reform was a modification of a proposal made by Aloysius Lilius. His proposal included reducing the number of leap years in four centuries from 100 to 97, by making 3 out of 4 centurial years common instead of leap years. Lilius also produced an original and practical scheme for adjusting the epacts of the moon when calculating the annual date of Easter, solving a long-standing obstacle to calendar reform.
The Gregorian reform modified the Julian calendar’s scheme of leap years as follows:
Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the years 1600 and 2000 are.
In addition to the change in the mean length of the calendar year from 365.25 days (365 days 6 hours) to 365.2425 days (365 days 5 hours 49 minutes 12 seconds), a reduction of 10 minutes 48 seconds per year, the Gregorian calendar reform also dealt with the accumulated difference between these lengths. The canonical Easter tables were devised at the end of the third century, when the vernal equinox fell either on 20 March or 21 March depending on the year’s position in the leap year cycle. As the rule was that the full moon preceding Easter was not to precede the equinox, the date was fixed at 21 March for computational purposes and the earliest date for Easter was fixed at 22 March. The Gregorian calendar reproduced these conditions by removing ten days.
There are several online articles on Gregorian Calendar, readers are well advised to refer them, if interested. Few questions which raise doubt over accuracy of this calendar –
- Gregory never attempted to corrected the Birth Date of Jesus Christ. Perhaps indulging in rectifying Jesus’s birth date would have stirred up a hornet’s nest!
- Never tried to bring Lunar Calendar in sync with Solar Calendar.
- It was arbitrarily chosen to drop few days from a month during switch over to new Gregorian calendar.
- The selection of month was NOT adopted by all countries, instead they chose to have their own time, month and date when switch over takes place – making it the worst confusion ever.
- It took more than FOUR Centuries whereby all countries adopted the Gregorian Calendar as civil calendar. Many countries still continue with their religious calendar’s which are in total conflict with Gregorian Calendar.
To clarify further, I will post calendar of different countries and the date on which Gregorian calendar was adopted. This also meant that certain dates were omitted (at random and at the whim and fancy of the powers to be). The missing dates will be marked with a red rectangle.
In 1582 four countries adopted Gregorian Calendar
In 1583 two more countries joined this list
Not only will you notice that the idea of dropping dates during switch over was never consistent among different countries, however, there is yet another surprise for you. Sweden is the ONLY country to have 30 days in February in the year 1712!
Above posted calendar’s of countries is by no means complete, the reader is well advised to conduct their own research.
So, if a budding astrologer is given a blind chart with one of the missing dates mentioned above and be asked to give a prediction, it behooves on him/her to be conversant with an inaccurate and pathetically designed calendar by Gregorian and implemented subsequently. No software worth its salt ever asks Country to be the first input and then the date, making all of them a blind man’s paradise for historical charts. No software accounts for this mischief.
This also dethrones yet another modern divination, that of Numerology! Modern Numerology has its roots somewhere in AD 325 or thereabouts when Julian Calendar was in force. Not only it was dethroned when Gregorian Calendar was adopted, but, consider a person born next day when switch over took place, the same person could be judged using Numerology in two different ways! How terrible is that!! In contrast Kabalistic Oracle and Numerology depends on another rule to judge, this is better valid today for doing Numerology.
Based on research worldwide, and with references from Christian Canons, the birth of Jesus Christ was NOT 25th December, instead this date was once a pagan celebration and in order to accommodate celebrations, it was decided to adopt 25th December as birth of Jesus Christ. Some have actually put this date somewhere 30 BC, some have put it on a different year. But, all of them agree that Jesus Christ was born in Spring or Summer instead of Winter!
Revised Julian Calendar – there are tall claims that it is the most accurate calendar ever made, but surprisingly, the offset between the Gregorian and Revised Julian calendars is negligible for many generations to come. The two systems will be in sync until the year 2800, which is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar but not in the Revised Julian calendar. In other words, February 29, 2800, in the Gregorian calendar will be March 1, 2800 in the Revised Julian calendar.
Conclusion: When the Calendar itself is based on inaccurate reference points, and again on the whim and fancy of a Pope, the whole system of divination or other sciences associated with it goes for a toss. Gregorian Calendar is merely a Civil Calendar whereby all nations agree to conduct trade and business on assigned days and nothing more!
As against this, the Vedic Calendar which began with the FIRST day of Kaliyuga, is the MOST ancient and accurate calendar to date. This calendar pre-dates the Vikram Samvat and Shaka Samvat by a huge margin! The traditional Hindu Almanac begins with mentioning the years that have passed since Kaliyuga began, and, how many are remaining! Hindu Calendar being Luni Solar in nature, remains perfectly in sync over tens and thousands of years!
Will post on Hindu Calendar and Hindu Numerology in future posts!